As defense secretary he substituted (1506) per citizens’ militia for the mercenary system then prevailing con Italy

A member of the impoverished branch of per distinguished family, he entered (1498) the political service of the Florentine republic and rose rapidly durante importance. This reform sprang from his conviction, attrezzi forth in his major works, that the employment of mercenaries had largely contributed onesto the political weakness of Italy. Machiavelli became acquainted with power politics through his important diplomatic missions. He met Cesare Borgia Borgia, Cesare or Caesar, 1476–1507, Italian soldier and politician, younger affranchit of Pope Alexander VI and an outstanding figure of the Italian Renaissance.. Click the link for more information. twice and was sent by way of Florence puro Louis XII of France (1504, 1510), puro Pope Julius II (1506), and sicuro Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (1507).

The Medicis’ return (1512) puro Florence caused his dismissal; sopra 1513 he was briefly imprisoned and was tortured for his alleged complicity sopra verso plot against the Medici. Machiavelli retired puro his country caldo, where he wrote his chief works. He humiliated himself before the Medici in verso vain attempt puro recover office. When, sopra 1527, the republic was briefly reestablished, Machiavelli was distrusted by many of the republicans, and he died thoroughly disappointed and embittered.

Principal Writings

Machiavelli’s best-known rete di emittenti, Il re [the prince] (1532), describes the means by which verso prince may gain and maintain his power. His « ideal » prince (seemingly modeled on Cesare Borgia Borgia, Cesare or Caesar, 1476–1507, Italian soldier and politician, younger chant of Pope Alexander VI and an outstanding figure of the Italian Renaissance.. Click the link for more information. ) is verso supremely adaptable, amoral, and calculating tyrant who would be able to establish per unified Italian state. The last chapter of the rete di emittenti pleads for the eventual liberation of Italy from foreign rule. Interpretations of The Prince vary: it has been viewed as sincere advice, as per plea for political office, as a detached analysis of Italian politics, as evidence of early Italian nationalism, and as political satire on Medici rule. However, the adjective Machiavellian has ad esempio to be per synonym for amoral cunning and for justification by power.

Less widely read but more indicative of Machiavelli’s politics is his scholarly Discorsi sulla avanti deca di Tito Livio [discourses on the first 10 books of Livy] (1531). Mediante it Machiavelli expounds per general theory of politics and government that stresses the importance of an uncorrupted political culture and verso vigorous political morality. Vaster con conception than The Prince, the Discourses shows clearly Machiavelli’s republican ideals and principles, which are also reflected sopra his Istorie Fiorentine [history of Florence] (1532), verso historical and literary masterpiece, entirely modern in concept.

Other works include Dell’arte della ostilita [on the art of war] (1521), which viewed military problems durante relation sicuro politics, and numerous reports and brief works. He also wrote many poems and plays, notably the lively, satiric, and ribald comedy Mandragola [the mandrake], an extremely popular rete di emittenti first performed durante 1520. His correspondence has been preserved and is of great interest. The chief works of Machiavelli are available sopra several popular English editions.


See P. Constantine, di nuovo., The Essential Writings of Machiavelli (2007); biographies by P. Villari (2 vol., tr. 1878), R. Ridolfi (1954, tr. 1963), and M. Vitoli (2000); H. Butterfield, The Statecraft of Machiavelli (1956); S. Anglo, Machiavelli (1970); Anche. Garver, Machiavelli and the History of Prudence (1987); P. S. Donaldson, Machiavelli and the Mystery of State (1989); R. King, Machiavelli: Philosopher of Power (2007); C. Vivanti, Niccolo Michiavelli: An Intellectual Biography (2013); P. Bobbitt, The Garments of Athletique and Palace: Machiavelli and the World That He Made (2013); Verso. Ryan, On Machiavelli: The Search for Glory (2013); M. Viroli, Redeeming « The Prince » (2013); E. Benner, Be like the Fox: Machiavelli’s Lifelong Quest for Freedom (2017).


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